Summary: Better to think of constancy than activation; and of separation rather than distribution.
The idea of a "movement dying out" is shown due to the fact that a common region of
constancy is a resting region.
Summary: A theorem that if a variable, properly joined to others, does not transmit an effect
it must be constant (or possibly, changing uniformly). (Converse of 1921)
The Conditioned Reflex [3]: Simple conditioned reflex as an elementary property of the commutive system, 1621. Still unsolved, 1943. Solved with multistable system, 1982. Further observations, 2064, 2490. Still unsolved, with reasons, 2192, 2243.
Summary: An improvement on the theorem about what is necessary in a multistable system.
1986
1987
Summary: For independence test, we must find ∑_{ρ=1..n-1}[f]^{ρ}. The old method of Lim_{ρ→∞}[f]^{ρ} is rejected. See 2054
1988
1989
Summary: It is decided that a 1st Jacobian matrix (J.M.) cannot be accepted as physically real
unless, for each i, not all a_{ii} , a_{iσ} a_{σi} , ... are zero. This is necessary and sufficient that the 2nd J.M. has all main-diagonal
elements non-zero and this is the simplest test for it. It follows that a more correct
form of the relation is ∑_{1..n}[f]^{ρ}=[F], the sum including the n-th power. This last power adds any missing diagonal terms.
See 2056
1990
1991
1992
1993
Summary: A clarification of interaction where one reaction uses another. "Dominance" is really
a negative concept. Ultrastability is not enough, we must have multistability. A "helping"
B, and B "using" A are really the same thing.
Summary: More extended tests of the chance of stability. Oddments [14]: Effect on equilibrium of fixing a variablle, 1808. Numerical test of proportion which become unstable, 1995.
1994
1995
Summary: Empirical study of the effect of fixing variables in stable systems.
1996
1997
1998
1999
Summary: Multistable system defined in new form. Theorem in modern form proves possibility
of adaptation by parts.
2000
2001
Summary: A very crude estimate of the chance, in a multistable system, of getting an adaptation
without upsetting previously established adaptations. It suggests the great importance
of low activations and the gross disturbance which might follow even a small increase
in it. 5416 The Multistable System [5]: Marked effect on multistable system of a small change in level of activation, 2002.
2002
2003
Summary: Standard symbols: General mathematical, complete systems, and for general repeated
use. Symbols standardised
Summary: Modern proof of the basic theorem of the multistable system.
2006
2007
2008
2009
Summary: Elementary rigorous properties of the multistable system, and of part-functions. Summary: When bounds in a multistable system are altering, a line's chance of destruction is
proportional to the number of variables it activates, and therefore also to its length.
(See next note) The Multistable System [4]: In a multistable system with bounds changing at random, a line's endurance is inversley
proportional to its length, 2011.
2010
2011
2012
2013
Summary: In a multistable system, with bounds changing at random, shorter lines have greater
survival. Under parameter change, resting states have maximal endurance if they coalesce.
Hence Habituation. (See below)
The Conditioned Reflex [11]: In a multistable system, if variables are repeatedly forced to certain values they
will tend to become stabilised there, 1943. Improved statement, 2015, 2240.
2014
2015
Summary: A more rigorous statement and proof of the theorem that repeated constraints on a
multistable system lead to the system becoming stable at that state.
2016
2017
Oddments [7]: New-born turtle going to the sea as example of a reaction which looks complex but
is simple, 2018. Masserman also, 2046. Morgan's examples, 2184.
Summary: On play. Also on reactions which look complete and turn out to be simple.
Oddments [7]: New-born turtle going to the sea as example of a reaction which looks complex but
is simple, 2018. Masserman also, 2046. Morgan's examples, 2184.
Summary: Simple units with output a linear function of the inputs are sufficiently general
provided we can control also their general speed of working. Homeostat design Isomorphism making machine
2082
2083
Summary: I suspect that any change in timing of a reaction really means learning a new reaction,
i.e. new arcs developed.
Summary: The dynamic system which controls the pH of the blood exhibited in my form, as illustration.
2122
2123
Summary: A method of getting an approximate solution to non-linear differential equations.
2124
2125
Summary: A physical example of the principle that when a change needs a rare combination to
make it possible, it will usually occur by some other way, in stages. (Cf. 2329)
Summary: In the study of enzyme systems and chemical dynamics, the equations of 2130 are the ultimate foundation: they are the bricks out of which further knowledge is
to be built.
Summary: The Adams- Bashforth method for numerical integration of ant simultaneous ordinary
differential equations.
Summary: Exposition. Clear ideas can be transmitted to a listener who does not know the argument
by language only simple and direct. (What a sentence!)
2174
2175
Society [27]: Richardson treats foreign politics by my methods, i.e. as absolute systems, 2176.
Summary: A number of interesting points from Richardson's book.
Summary: The various "constancies" of the body, so carefully maintained (homeostasis), are
also separations and independencies. This needs further investigation. (See 2314) Homeostat design Isomorphism making machine Natural Selection [48]: Homeostasis = constancy = independence, why the latter? 2181. Answered 2314, to preserve the gene pattern.
2180
2181
Summary: A workable unit has actually been made (second system, other was 2094). (Improved, 2432) Learning speed of Speed of learning
2182
2183
Oddments [7]: New-born turtle going to the sea as example of a reaction which looks complex but
is simple, 2018. Masserman also, 2046. Morgan's examples, 2184. Oddments [8]: Example of non-adaptive organisation, 2184. (Amblystoma's limb walking backwards).
The Conditioned Reflex [3]: Simple conditioned reflex as an elementary property of the commutive system, 1621. Still unsolved, 1943. Solved with multistable system, 1982. Further observations, 2064, 2490. Still unsolved, with reasons, 2192, 2243.
2192
2193
Summary: Pavlov and the conditioned reflex seems to make little contact with my work, chiefly
because he allows the dog no interaction with the environment.
Homeostasis Cannon applied it to social and industrial systems Homeostasis defined Homeostasis review of Cannon on Society [3]: As man in society is analogous to the neurone in the brain, the same solution will
do for both. Cannon thinks the same, 2195, 2198.
2194
2195
2196
2197
Infant homeostasis in Society [3]: As man in society is analogous to the neurone in the brain, the same solution will
do for both. Cannon thinks the same, 2195, 2198.
Summary: The formulation of "signal", "symbol", "association" given vaguely on 786 is confirmed and given more precision. Coordination Bartlett's definition Signal nature of
Summary: Look out for linkages in experimental dynamic systems. There are often much closer
linkages in the structure of the experiment than seems at first sight. Several parameter
often turn out to be one parameter.
Summary: If a variable of an ultrastable system is repeatedly forced to take a particular value
arbitrarily, then the resting state tends to develop with the variable at that value.
2240
2241
Summary: It is dangerous for an ultrastable system to move. (4596)
The Conditioned Reflex [3]: Simple conditioned reflex as an elementary property of the commutive system, 1621. Still unsolved, 1943. Solved with multistable system, 1982. Further observations, 2064, 2490. Still unsolved, with reasons, 2192, 2243.